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FACTOIDS AND RESOURCE LINKS
Mad Cow Disease
Vegetarianism
The Environment
Human Health
Animal Rights

INDEX
  • AIR [Acid Rain] [Global Warming]
  • LAND [Forests] [Public] [Topsoil]
  • WATER [Aquaculture] [Water: 10/0/02] [Oceans]
  • ANIMAL WASTE
  • CALIFORNIA DAIRIES 
  • SPECIES EXTINCTION 
  • RESOURCES: [Links] [Books] 
    AIR: ACID RAIN 

  • "The EPA air quality standards... are not based on adequate scientific evidence... (and may) prove devastating to the beef industry." (National Cattlemen's Beef Association) ("Air Quality Fact Sheet," National Cattlemen's Beef Association) [02.07.27:01]

    "The ammonia that the livestock industry discharges into the air is the single largest source of acid deposited on Dutch soils --- doing more damage than the countryís cars or factories." (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, The Netherlands)" (See Durning, Alan, and Brough, Holly, "Taking Stock: Animal Farming and the Environment," Worldwatch Paper 103, July 1991, pg 20) [02.07.27:02]


    AIR: GLOBAL WARMING
"Average annual economic losses from weather-related disasters, worldwide,during the 1980s: $8 billion" (Dunn, Seth, "Weather-related Losses Hit New High," Vital Signs 1999, Worldwatch Institute, pg 75) [02.07.27:03]

"Average annual economic losses from weather-related disasters, worldwide, during the 1990s: $40 billion" (Dunn, Seth, "Weather-related Losses Hit New High," Vital Signs 1999, Worldwatch Institute, pg 75) [02.07.27:04] 

"Comparison of the economic losses from weather-related disasters in the single year of 1998 to those that occured throughout the entire decade of the 1980s combined: More than $12 billion greater." (Dunn, Seth, "Weather-related Losses Hit New High," Vital Signs 1999, Worldwatch Institute, pg 75) [02.07.27:05] 

"The upward trend in weather-related disasters has occurred in tandem with a rise in global average surface temperatures, which scientists observe may increase the frequency and intensity of extreme events, including the wind speed of tropical storms... Continued climate change will almost inevitably yield increasingly extreme natural events and large catastrophic losses."(Worldwatch Institute) (Dunn, Seth, "Weather-related Losses Hit New High," Vital Signs 1999, Worldwatch Institute, pg 74) [02.07.27:06]

"One of the most potent greenhosue gases destabilizing the planetís climate is methane. It is some 24 times more potent a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, and its concentration in the atmosphere has been rising faster - by about 1 percent per year for the last fifty years." (Ciborowski, P., "Sources, sinks, trends, and opportunities," in Abrahamson, D., ed., The Callenge of Global Warming, Island Press, Washington DC, 1989; See also Khalil, M. and Rasmussen, R., "Sources, sinks, and seasonal cycles of atmosphjeric methane," Journal of Geophysical Research, 1983:88:5131-33) [02.07.27:07]

"(It is a) myth that U.S. cattle produce large amounts of methane, a 'greenhouse' gas, thereby contributing significantly to possible global warming problems." (National Cattlemen's Beef Association) ("Myths and Facts About Beef Production: Methane Productions," National Cattlemen's Beef Association) [02.07.27:08]

"Livestock account for 15% to 20% of (overall) global methane emissions.î (Worldwatch Institute) (Durning, Alan, and Brough, Holly, "Taking Stock: animal Farming and the Environment," Worldwatch Paper 103, July 1991) [02.07.27:09]

"The overall energy efficiency of beef often is comparable, or even superior, to the energy efficiency of plant-source foods." (National Cattlemen's Beef Association) ("Myths and Facts About Beef Production: Energy Use," National Cattlemen's Beef Association) [02.07.27:10]

"American feed (for livestock) takes so much energy to grow that it might as well be a petroleum byproduct." (Worldwatch Institute) ("The Price of Beef," WorldWatch, July/Aug 1994, pg 39) [02.07.27:11]

"Calories of fossil fuel expended to produce 1 calorie of protein from soybeans: 2" ( Pimentel, David and Marcia, Food, Energy and Society, 1979, pg 59; And Pimentel, et. al., "Energy and Land Constraints in Food Protein Production,î Science, Nov 21, 1975; cited in Lappe', Frances Moore, Diet For A Small Planet, 20th anniversary edition, Ballantine books, New York, 1991, pg 74-75) [02.07.27:12]

"Calories of fossil fuel expended to produce 1 calorie of protein from beef: 78" (Pimentel, David and Marcia, Food, Energy and Society, 1979, pg 59; And Pimentel, et. al., "Energy and Land Constraints in Food Protein Production," Science, Nov 21, 1975; cited in Lappe', Frances Moore, Diet For A Small Planet, 20th anniversary edition, Ballantine books, New York, 1991, pg 74-75) [02.07.27:13]

"Results (of extensive research at the Fort Krogh Livestock and Range Reserve Laboratory at Miles City, Montana) pointedly reveal the high level of dependency of the U.S. beef cattle industry on fossil fuels.î (Journal of Animal Science, 1996) (Heitschmidt, R. K., et. al., "Ecosystems, sustainability, and animal agriculture," Journal of Animal Science 1996:74:1395-1405) [02.07.27:14]

"The two worst things people do to the planet in their daily lives (according to the Union of Concerned Scientists): Drive vehicles that get poor gas mileage and eat beef." ("Groupís Surprising Beef with Meat Industry: Study ranks production of beef, poultry and pork as second to automobiles in ecological cost," San Francisco Chronicle, Apr 27, 1999; See also Brower, Michael, and Leon, Warren, The Consumerís Guide to Effective Environmental Choices: Practical advice from the Union of Concerned Scientists, Three Rivers Press/Crown Publishers, New York, 1999) [02.07.27:15]

"Amount of greenhouse-warming carbon gas released by driving a typical American car, in one day: 3 kilograms." ("The Price of Beef," WorldWatch, July/Aug 1994, pg 39) [02.07.27:16]

"Amount released by clearing and burning enough Costa Rican rainforest to produce beef for one hamburger: 75 kilograms." (Munoz, K, et al, "Food Intakes of U.S. Children and Adolescents Compared with Recommendations," Pediatrics, Sept 1997, pg 323-29. See also, "Few Young People Eat Wisely, Study Shows," Associated Press, New York Times, Sept 3, 1997, A-12) [02.07.27:17]

"The evidence of global warming has been inconclusive at best... whether (there exists) a warming trend is unclear." (National Cattelmen's Beef Association)" ("Myths and Facts About Beef Production: Methane Production," National Cattlemen'ís Beef Association) [02.07.27:18]

"Global warming has emerged as the most serious environmental threat of the 21st century... Only by taking action now can we insure that future generations will not be put at risk.î (Letter to the President from 49 Nobel Prize winning scientists) " (Booth, W., "Action urged against global warming: scientists appeal for curbs on gases," Washington Post, Feb 2, 1990) [02.07.27:19]



LAND: FORESTS

"Area of tropical rainforest destroyed for the production of each fast-food hamburger made from rainforest beef:  55 square feet. (Denslow, Julie, and Padoch, Christine, People of the Tropical Rainforest, University of California Press, 1988, pg 169)  [02.08.08.01]

"Rainforest beef is typically found in fast food hamburgers or processed beef products.  In both 1993 and 1994 the United States imported over 200,000,000 pounds of fresh and frozen beef from Central American countries.  Two-thirds of these countriesí rainforests have been cleared, primarily to raise cattle whose stringy, cheap meat is exported to profit the U.S. food industry.  When it enters the United States, the beef is not labeled with its country of origin, so there is no way to trace it to its sources."  (Rainforest Action Network)  ("Seven Things You Can Do to Save the Rainforest,"  Rainforest Action Network Factsheet, http://www.ran.org/ran/info_center/factsheets/)  [02.08.08.02]

"Growing imports of beef by the United States from southern Mexico and Central America during the past 25 years has been the major factor in the loss of about half of the tropical forests there --- all for the sake of keeping the price of hamburger in the United States about a nickel less than it would have been otherwise."  (MacArthur Foundation Report)  (Raven, Pwerter, We're Killing Our World:  The Global Ecosystem in Crisis, MacArthur Foundation, Illinois, 1987, pg 8)  [02.08.08.03]

"Number of species of birds in one square mile of Amazon rainforest:  More than exist in all of North America."  (Gore, Al, Earth In Balance:  Ecology and the Human Spirit, Plume, New York, 1993, pg 23)  [02.08.08.04]

"Life forms destroyed in the production of each fast-food hamburger made from rainforest beef:  Members of 20 to 30 different plant species,100 different insect spcies, and dozens of bird, mammal and reptile species."  (Denslow, Julie, and Padoch, Christine, People of the Tropical Rainforest, University of California Press, 1988, pg 169)  [02.08.08.05]

"The number one factor in elimination of Latin Americaís tropical rainforests is cattle-grazing... the "hamburgerization" of the forests."  (Norman Myers, Author of The Primary Source:  Tropical Forests and Our Future)  (Myers, Norman, The Primary Source:  Tropical Forests and Our Future, W. W. Norton, New York and London, 1984, pg 127, 142)  [02.08.08.06]

"What a hamburger produced by clearing forest in India would cost if the real costs were included in the price rather than subsidized:  $200"   ("The Price of Beef,"  WorldWatch, July/Aug  1994, pg 39)  [02.08.08.07]

"Price paid by American cattlemen for the use of government land to raise beef, per hamburger:  1 cent"  ("The Price of Beef,"  WorldWatch, July/Aug  1994, pg 39)  [02.08.08.08]



WATER

"The conclusion of a 2000 report by the World Commission on Water predicts that the increase in water use in the future due to rising population numbers will 'impose intolerable stesses on the environment, leading not only to a loss of biodiversity (species extinction), but also to a vicious circle in which the stresses on the ecosystem (will) no longer provide the services for plants and people." ("A Water Secure World: Vision for Water, Life, and the Environment," Reproted in Mittelstaedt, Martin, "World Water Use to Soar to Crisis Levels, Study Says," The Globe and Mail, March 14, 2000) [02.10.01.01]

"Water required to produce one pound of U.S. beef, according to the national Cattlemens' Beef Association: 441 gallons" ("Myths and Facts About Beef Production: Water Use," National Cattlemen's Beef Association) [02.10.01.02]

"Water required to produce one pound of U.S.beef: 2,500 gallons" (per Dr. George Borgstrom, Chairman of Food Science and Human Nutrition Dept of College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University, "Impacts on Demand for and Quality of land and Water," Presentation to the 1981 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science) [02.10.01.03]

"Water required to produce 1 pound of California beef: 2,464 gallons" ("Water Inputs in California Food Production," Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA ) [02.10.01.04]

"Water required to produce one pound (lb.) of California foods:

  • 1 lb. lettuce: 23 gallons
  • 1 lb. tomatoes: 24 gallons
  • 1 lb. wheat: 25 gallons
  • 1 lb. carrots: 33 gallons
  • 1 lb. apples: 49 gallons
  • 1 lb. chicken: 815 gallons
  • 1 lb. pork: 1,630 gallons
  • 1 lb. beef: 5,214 gallons

(according to Soil and Water specialists, Univ. of Calif. Agricultural Extension, working with livestock farm advisors: Schulbach, Herb , et. al., in Soil and Water, No. 38, Fall 1978) [02.10.01.05]

"In California, the single biggest consumer of water is not Los Angeles. It is not the oil and chemicals or defense industries. Nor is it the fields of grapes and tomatoes. It is irrigated pasture: grass grown in a near-desert climate for cows... The West's water crisis --- and many of its environmental problems as well --- can be summed up, implausible as this may seem, in a single word: livestock." ("Cadillac Desert", by Marc Reisner) [02.10.01.06]

"Nearly half the water consumed in this country is used for livestock, mostly cattle." (Audubon Magazine, Dec. 1999) [02.10.01.07]

"Irrigation to grow food for livestock, including hay, corn, sorghum, and pasture, uses 50 out of every 100 gallons of water consumed in the United States." (Frances Moore Lappe, Diet for a Small Planet, 20th Anniversary Edition, Ballantine Books, New York, 1991, pg. 76) [02.10.01.08]

"Only within the last half-century have we acquired the ability to use powerful diesel and electric pums to empty aquifer in a matter of decades... Around the world, as more water is diverted to raising (cattle), pigs and chickens, instead of producing crops for direct consumption, millions of wells are going dry. India, china, North Africa, and the United States are all running freshwater deficits, pumping more from their aquifers than rain can replenish." (Ayres, Ed, "will We Still Eat Meat? Maybe not, if we wake up to what the mass production of animal flesh is doing to our health, and the planet's," Time, Nov. 8, 1999) [02.10.01.09]

"The amount of water that goes into a 1,000 pound steer would float a (Naval) destroyer." ("The Browning of America," Newsweek, Feb. 22, 1981, pg. 26) [02.10.01.10]

"Nearly half of all the waters off the coast of the United States are so damaged they cannot fully support aquatic life" ("EPA Report Finds Nearly Half of Coastal Waters Damaged, Not Fit For Life", http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/DailyNews/coastal_waters020403.html, April 3, 2002, by Bob Jamieson ) [02.09.30.01]

"A major threat to estuaries is pollution from farms and lawns, from roads and construction sites borne hundreds of miles by rivers including the Mississippi. The Gulf of Mexico, the EPA said, collects pollutants from 40 percent of the land in the continental United States" ("EPA Report Finds Nearly Half of Coastal Waters Damaged, Not Fit For Life", http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/DailyNews/coastal_waters020403.html, April 3, 2002, by Bob Jamieson ) [02.09.30.02]

"Unfortunately, the Gulf of Mexico has been treated as somewhat of a sewer by the rest of the United States," said Mark Muhich of the Sierra Club" ("EPA Report Finds Nearly Half of Coastal Waters Damaged, Not Fit For Life", http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/DailyNews/coastal_waters020403.html, April 3, 2002, by Bob Jamieson ) [02.09.30.03]

"Study finds over 80% of U.S. streams and rivers are contaminated with a broad array of medical drugs, including hormones, antibiotics, antidepressants, and heart medications, as well as chemicals from personal care and household cleaning products. The first U.S.-wide study of pharmaceutical pollution of rivers and streams offers an unsettling picture of waterways contaminated with antibiotics, painkillers such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen, steroids, synthetic hormones used in contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, antidepressants, and other commonly used drugs, as well as chemicals found in beauty aids, household cleaners, and foods." (Washington Post, March 13, 2002) [02.09.30.04]

"Scientists have long known that as much as 90 percent of ingested drugs are excreted from the body in a still potent form. Other substances, such as stale coffee and unused prescriptions, are often flushed directly down toilets or poured down drains. Scores of those chemicals might not be removed from wastewater at sewage treatment plants and some of the compounds might end up in drinking water." (Washington Post, March 13, 2002) [02.09.30.05]



SPECIES EXTINCTION

"A 1998 report in Science magazine concluded that the destruction of life in the oceans has progressed farther than anyone has suspected." (Pauly, Daniel, et. al., "Fishing Down Marine Food Webs," Science, Feb 6, 1998, pg 860-63) [02.09.20.01]

"In 1999, University of Wyoming law professor, Debra Donahue, who holds a masterís degree in wildlife biology, wrote a book in which she said the most important thing that could be done to protect species from extinction and preserve biodiversity is to remove livestock from nearly all public lands. In response, Wyoming Senate president and cattleman Jim Twiford proposed a bill that would dismantle the university law school." (Wilkinson, Todd, "In a Battle over Cattle, both sides await grazing ruling," Christian Science Monitor, May 1, 2000) [02.07.27:20]

"Leading cause of species in the tropical rainforests being threatened or eliminated: Livestock Grazing." ("Livestock and Environment," Agriculture 21, Agriculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) [02.07.27:21] 

"Leading cause of species in the United States being threatened or eliminated (according to the U.S. Congress General Accounting Office): Livestock Grazing." (Wuerthner, George, "The Price is Wrong," Sierra, Sept/Oct 1990, pg 40-41. Also, Bogo, Jennifer, "Where's The Beef?" E Magazine, Nov/Dec 1999, pg 49) [02.07.27:22]


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