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Animal Rights

INDEX

GENERAL:

"The total number of mammals and birds raised and killed for food in the U.S. this year is expected to reach 9.906 billion. This represents a 2% increase over the 2000 figure of 9.713 billion." (extrapolation of data published by USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) by FARM: http://www.farm.org For report pdf: http://www.wfad.org/RESOURCES/NRAnVictims2x.pdf) [02.10.01.01]

"The 2001 total includes 40 million cattle and calves (down 4% from 2000), 113 million pigs (down 2%), 4 million sheep (down 7%), 308 million turkeys (up 1.3%), 8,967 million 'broilers' (up 2%), 446 million laying hens (up 3.8%), and 25.6 million ducks (up 2.8%)." (extrapolation of data published by USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) by FARM: http://www.farm.org For report pdf: http://www.wfad.org/RESOURCES/NRAnVictims2x.pdf) [02.10.01.02]

"The total [almost 10 billion] also includes nearly 860 million animals who die from mistreatment before ever reaching the slaughterhouse. It does not include the staggering number of aquatic animals used for food, nor the smaller number of terrestrial animals hunted for food or because they compete with farmed animals." (extrapolation of data published by USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) by FARM: http://www.farm.org For report pdf: http://www.wfad.org/RESOURCES/NRAnVictims2x.pdf) [02.10.01.03]

"The 9.900 million animals raised and killed for food account for 98% of all animals abused and killed annually in the US. Approximately 135 million animals are killed for 'sport', 25 million are used in biomedical research and testing, and 10 million are put down in pounds." (extrapolation of data published by USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) by FARM: http://www.farm.org For report pdf: http://www.wfad.org/RESOURCES/NRAnVictims2x.pdf) [02.10.01.04]

"The worldwide number of animals killed for food in 2000 was 45 billion, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. This included 306 million cattle, buffalo, and calves, 1.2 billion pigs, 795 million sheep and goats, and nearly 43 billion chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese. The figures exclude some small countries and 'non-slaughter' deaths, which are generally not reported." (extrapolation of data published by USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) by FARM: http://www.farm.org For report pdf: http://www.wfad.org/RESOURCES/NRAnVictims2x.pdf) [002.10.01.5]

"In more personal terms, during a 75-year lifetime, a typical U.S. resident is responsible for the suffering and death of 11 cows, 32 pigs and sheep, 85 turkeys, 2,570 chickens and ducks, and un-counted numbers of fish and other aquatic animals." (extrapolation of data published by USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) by FARM: http://www.farm.org For report pdf: http://www.wfad.org/RESOURCES/NRAnVictims2x.pdf) [02.10.01.06]

“A common perception of livestock people is that animal rights activists don’t understand the livestock industry (they don’t ‘get it,’ in current terminology) because of their urban backgrounds...The activists do ‘get it,’ they know what is going on, and they don’t like it.” (Peter R. Cheeke, Ph.D., Editor, Journal of Animal Science) (Cheeke, Peter, Contemporary Issues in Animal Agriculture, 2nd ed., Interstate Publishers, Danville, IL, 1999 pg. 258) [02.08.03:01]

“One of the best things modern animal agriculture has going for it is that most people... haven’t a clue how animals are raised and processed... If most urban meat-eaters were to visit an industrial broiler house, to see how the birds are raised, and could see the birds being ‘harvested’ and then being ‘processed’ in a poultry processing plant, some, perhaps many of them, would swear off eating chicken and perhaps all meat. For modern animal agriculture, the less the consumer knows about what’s happing before the meat hits the plate, the better.” (Peter R. Cheeke, Ph.D., Editor, Journal of animal Science; Professor of Animal Science, Oregon State University) (Cheeke, Peter, Contemporary Issues in Animal Agriculture, 2nd ed., Interstate Publishers, Danville, IL, 1999 pg. 248) [02.08.03:02]

"U.S. society is extremely naive about the nature of (animal) agricultural production... In fact, if the public knew more about the way in which agricultural animal prodcution infringes on animal welfare, the outcry would be louder... If the public knew, for instance, that some swine (pigs) raised in total confinement literally never see the light of day, it would be more, not less, hostile to current agriculture." (Bernard Rollin, Ph.D., Colorado State University expert on animal farming, author of more than 150 papers and 10 books on ethics and animal science) (Rollin, Bernard, Farm Animal Welfare: Social, Bioethical and Research Issues, Iowa State University Press, Ames Iowa, 1995, pg. 23) [02.08.03:03]

“To the experienced viewer, some routine farm handling practices necessary to the welfare and health of the animal and the insurance of quality food may appear brutal, just as some life-saving human surgical and medical practices may seem brutal to the casual observer. All of these practices are done... to ensure the welfare of the animal.” (Animal Industry Foundation) (Animal Agriculture: Myths and Facts, Animal Industry Foundation, Arlington, VA, 1989, pg. 13) [02.08.03:04]

“I have witnessed with alarming frequency... physical abuse of livestock during transportation... (I have seen ) hitting, beating, jabbing of short objects into animals, and deliberate cruelty.” (Temple Grandin, Ph.D., livestock handling consultant to McDonald’s) [02.08.03:05]

“It is a myth that farm animals are routinely raised on ‘factory farms,’ confined in ‘crowded, unventilated cages and sheds... ‘ One of the best strongholds of animal welfare in our culture is the farmer... The image of the family farm with its red barn, a few chickens in the yard, some pigs in the mud and cows in the field isn’t accurate anymore. But neither is the sterile, mechanized, emotionless ‘food factory’ that some would have us believe. Today, U.S. agriculture is a dynamic, specialized endeavor, the envy of the rest of the world... The key to this efficiency? The best cared for livestock and poultry in the world... As American animal agriculture grows and changes, there is a double constant: Farmer’s concern for the welfare of the animal, and their dedication to provding the highest quality , safest food in the world.” (Animal Industry Foundation) (Animal Agriculture: Myths and Facts, Animal Industry Foundation, Arlington, VA, 1989, pg. 3, 5, 9) [02.08.03:06]

“Agribusiness companies tell us that animals in factory farms are ‘as well cared for as their own pet dog or cat.’ Nothing could be further from the truth. The life of an animal in a factory farm is characterized by acute deprivation, stress, and disease. Hundreds of millions of animals are forced to live in cages or crates just barely larger than their own bodies. While one species may be caged alone without any social contact, another species may be crowded so tightly together that they fall prey to stress-induced cannibalism. Cannibalism is particularly prevalent in the cramped confinement of hogs and laying hens. Unable to groom, stretch their legs, or even turn around, the victims of factory farms exist in a relentless state of distress.” (Humane Farming Association) (“The Dangers of Factory Farming,” Consumer Alert, Humane Farming Association) [02.08.03:07]



CHICKENS:

"When it comes to the words 'natural,' 'organic,' and 'free range'... federal law is and always was toothless. It doesn't guarantee a thing... Poultry companies use 'free range' strictly as a marketing gimmick. legally, the phrase means nothing. There is no law or regulation defining 'free range.' ... 'Natural' is another meaningless term... By USDA's standards a Burger King Whopper is natural." (Bjerklie, Steve, "Fowl Play," Sonoma County Independent/Metro Active, May 15, 1997) [02.10.01.01]

"Free range doesn't mean anything... Conventional chicken can use (the word) 'natural,' and that's totally ridiculous. Right now anyone can say almost anything on a label about their chicken. They're just hoodwinking the public." (Bjerklie, Steve, "Fowl Play," Sonoma County Independent/Metro Active, May 15, 1997) [02.10.01.02]

"Advertisements for "Happy Hen Organic Fertile Brown Eggs" in Pennsylvania: The hens run free "ina natural setting," and are "humanely housed in healthy, open-sided housing, for daily sunning --- something Happy Hens really enjoy." ("The Rougher They Look, The Better They Lay," Poultry Press, Vol. 2, No.4) [02.10.01.03]

"Reality: More than 7,000 birds are housed in each "Happy Hen" barn; the wall to wall birds are severely debeaked; and individual hens have no more than 11.5 square inches of space each." ("The Rougher They Look, The Better They Lay," Poultry Press, Vol. 2, No.4)) [02.10.01.04]

"Number of chickens slaughtered every minute in the U.S.: 14,000." "What Humans Owe to Animals," The Economist, Aug 19, 1995. [02.06.27:01]

"U.S. chickens infected with leukosis (chicken cancer) at time of slaughter: 90%." [02.06.27:02]



COWS:

"Number of cows and calves slaughtered every 24 hours in the U.S.: 90,000." "What Humans Owe to Animals," The Economist, Aug 19, 1995. [02.06.27:03]

"U.S. dairy cows: 10 million." Mason, Jim "Assault and Battery," Animals' Voice, Vol. 4, No. 2, pg. 33. [02.06.27:04]

"U.S. dairy cows housed in some type of factory system: 5 million" Mason, Jim "Assault and Battery," Animals' Voice, Vol. 4, No. 2, pg. 33. [02.06.27:05]

"Natural life-span of a dairy cow: 20-25 years." [02.06.27:06]

"Lifespan of U.S. dairy cows. 3-4 years." [02.06.27:07]

"Period of time required for U.S. factory farms cows to produce their own weight in milk today: 3 weeks." [02.06.27:08]

"For some cows given bovine growth hormone: 8 days"[02.06.27:09]

"U.S. dairy cows that at any given time have mastitis (painful udder infections): 50%." Adcock, Melanie, "The Diary Cow: America's 'Foster Mother,"' Humane Society of the United States; http://www.hsus.org [02.06.27:10]

"Materials routinely fed to U.S. cattle: Dried poultry waste and sewage sludge." Cheeke, Peter, Contemporary issues in Animal Agriculture, 2nd ed, Interstate Publishers, Danville, IL, 1999 pg 76, 278. [02.06.27:11]

"Cattle feed now contains things like chicken manure and dead cats." (U.S. News and World Report, 1997) "The next bad beef scandal," U.S. News and World Report, Sept 1, 1997. [02.06.27:12]



FISH

"76% of the world's fisheries are depleted or in steep decline. The twin causes are pollution and overfishing." (Egan, Timothy, "U.S. Fishing Fleet Trawling Coastal Water Without Fish," New York Times, March 7, 1994, pg. A-1) [02.09.20.02]

"Amount of fish caught per person, worldwide, and sold for human consumption in 1996: 16 kilograms" (35.2 pounds) ("Monoculture: the Biological and Social Impacts," WorldWatch, March/April 1998, pg. 39) [02.09.20.03]

"Amount of marine life that was hauled up with the fish and discarded, per person in 1996: 200 kilograms." (440 pounds) ("Monoculture: the Biological and Social Impacts," WorldWatch, March/April 1998, pg. 39) [02.09.20.04]

"Amount of world's fish catch fed to livestock: Half" (Holt, S., "The Food Resources of the Ocean," Scientific American, No. 221, pg. 178-94, 1969) [02.09.20.05]

"Amount of fish consumed by U.S. livestock: More than eaten by the entire human population of all the countries of Western Europe combined." (Borgstrum, Georgee, The Hungry Planet, Collier Books, 1967, pg. 311) [02.09.20.06]

"Fish consumed worldwide today that are raised in captivity: 20%" (United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, quoted in "Factory Seafood Production," Farm Sanctuary, http://www.factoryfarming.com/fish) [02.09.20.07]

"Salmon consumed in 1990 that lived in captivity most of their lives: 6%" (McGinn, Anne Platt, "Blue Revolution -- the Promises and Pitfalls of Fish Farmings," WorldWatch, March/April 1998, pg. 10-19) [02.09.20.08]

"Salmon consumed in 1998 that lived in captivity most of their lives: 40%" (McGinn, Anne Platt, "Blue Revolution -- the Promises and Pitfalls of Fish Farmings," WorldWatch, March/April 1998, pg. 10-19) [02.09.20.09]

"World fish farming production in 1984: 7 million tons." (Brown, Lester, "Restructuring the Protein Economy," in Vital Signs 1999, WorldWatch Institute, pg. 20) [02.09.20.10]

"World fish farming production in 1998: 27 million tons." (Brown, Lester, "Restructuring the Protein Economy," in Vital Signs 1999, WorldWatch Institute, pg. 20) [02.09.20.11]

"Atlantic salmon in 1975: 800,000" (Atlantic salmon in short supply, BBC News Online, May 31, 2000) [02.09.20.12]

"Atlantic salmon in 2000: 80,000" (Atlantic salmon in short supply, BBC News Online, May 31, 2000) [02.09.20.13]

"One of the three reasons singled out by the World Wide Fund for Nature and the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization for this loss: Disease and parasites stemming from salmon farms." (Atlantic salmon in short supply, BBC News Online, May 31, 2000) [02.09.20.14]

"Other two reasons: Dams which block the fish from passage to suitable spawning grounds, and industrial and agricultural pollution." (Atlantic salmon in short supply, BBC News Online, May 31, 2000) [02.09.20.15]

"Size of standard salmon at 18 months of age: 1/2 pound." (Carol Kaesuk Yoon, "Altered Salmon Lead the Way to the Dinner Plate, but Rules Lag, New York Times, May 1, 2000) [02.09.20.16]

"Size of genetically engineered salmon at same age: 7 pounds." (Carol Kaesuk Yoon, "Altered Salmon Lead the Way to the Dinner Plate, but Rules Lag, New York Times, May 1, 2000) [02.09.20.17]

"Commercial orders received by the company that developed these genetically engineered salmn immediately after they were available in 2000: 15 million eggs." (Carol Kaesuk Yoon, "Altered Salmon Lead the Way to the Dinner Plate, but Rules Lag, New York Times, May 1, 2000) [02.09.20.18]

"How often farmed salmon escape: Routinely, sometimes by the tens of thousands." (Carol Kaesuk Yoon, "Altered Salmon Lead the Way to the Dinner Plate, but Rules Lag, New York Times, May 1, 2000) [02.09.20.19]

"Impact on children born to women who consumed fish from Lake Michigan just 2 or 3 times a month during pregnancy: More sluggish at birth, smaller heads, lower IQs, cognitive difficulties." ("Fish and Mental Deficits," Good Medicine, Summer 1997, pg. 4) [02.09.20.20]

"Reason: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) -- industrial chemicals that have long been associated with brain disorders in children, found in Great Lakes fish." ("Fish and Mental Deficits," Good Medicine, Summer 1997, pg. 4) [02.09.20.21]

"Number of states that have issued advisories against eating local fish because of PCB and dioxin contamination: 46" ("State of the World 2000", WorldWatch Institute, W. W. Norton, New York, 2000, pg. 89) [02.09.20.22]



PIGS:

"Materials routinely given to U.S. pigs: Raw poultry and pig manure." [02.06.27:13]

"Water routinely given to U.S. pigs: Liquid wastes draining from manure pits." [02.06.27:14]

"U.S. pigs infected with pneumonia at time of slaughter: 70 - 80%." Research by Eli Lilly and Co. and Flanco Products Co., reported in "The Dangers of Factory Farming," Humane Farming Association. [02.06.27:15]



TURKEYS:

"Approximately 45 million turkeys are killed each year at Thanksgiving. Before ending up as the holiday centerpiece, these gentle birds spend five to six months on factory farms, 15,000 of them packed tightly in dark sheds, with only 3 square feet of space per bird. To keep the overcrowded birds from scratching and pecking each other to death, factory workers slice off a portion of their upper beaks and toes with a hot blade. No anesthetics are used during this agonizing procedure." (Karen Davis, "The Modern Turkey: In Need of Thanksgiving Deliverance," The Animals’ Agenda, Nov.-Dec. 1992, p. 27, http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsveg122.html) [02.11.24:01]

"Consider this: More than 40 million farmed turkeys will be served up for Thanksgiving dinner, according to the Humane Society of the United States. Unlike wild turkeys, which roam forests and pastures throughout the lower 48 states, domestic turkeys are raised on factory farms, where thousands of the animals are crowded into small areas of space." (http://www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/2000/11/11232000/turkeytime_40392.asp) [02.11.24:02]

"In the wild, turkeys display complex social interactions with one another. Foraging over a range that can cover up to 11 square miles, they fulfill their dietary requirements mainly with nuts, acorns and grass. By contrast, turkeys raised on factory farms experience little semblance of a natural life. They spend their lives cooped up in barns, and they are given concentrated feed laden with antibiotics to prevent disease and to boost growth. "Turkeys are deprived of their most basic physical and behavioral needs, " said Dave Kuemmerle, program manager of sustainable agriculture for the Humane Society. "In addition, this form of agriculture is detrimental to the environment and poses serious human health concerns." (http://www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/2000/11/11232000/turkeytime_40392.asp) [02.11.24:03]

"A virus that infects young turkeys has been identified by the USDA's Agricultural Research Service. First seen in the southeastern United States poultry industry in the early 1990s, this "astrovirus" is now circulating throughout the United States. The virus, which is also associated with diarrhea outbreaks in humans and other animals, is linked to another widespread production disease in very young turkeys called Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS). This highly infectious, transmissible disease causes severe diarrhea, stunted growth, high death rates, and lifelong harm to the turkey's immune system, and leaves the birds extremely susceptible to other infections. From USDA ARS News Service, October 11, 2001. " (http://www.upc-online.org/winter2001/turkey_virus.html) [02.11.24:04]

"Unlike the United Kingdom, Canada, Sweden, and most other modern nations, the United States does not extend federal humane slaughter protective legislation to turkeys or other fowl, even though birds constitute the enormous bulk of animals killed for food each year in this country, totalling well over six out of seven billion animals. In 1991, 285 million turkeys were killed. The National Turkey Federation (the U.S. trade group), as expected, opposes humane slaughter protective legislation for poultry in the United States."" (http://www.upc-online.org/turkey.html ) [02.11.24:05]

"Because commercial turkeys are raised to grow at a rapid rate, their legs have difficulty supporting their plump bodies, the Humane Society notes. They often die of heart attacks because their internal organs cannot keep up the same growth rate. Selectively bred to produce more white meat, their chests become so large that they cannot mate under natural circumstances and as a result, they are bred though artificial insemination. " (http://www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/2000/11/11232000/turkeytime_40392.asp) [02.11.24:06]

"Commercial turkeys are in such close quarters that they peck at one another out of boredom," Kuemmerle [Humane Society] explained. "To prevent the turkeys from bumping and bruising each others' meat, they routinely have their beaks and snoods (the loose red skin attached to their heads) cut off. No anesthetic is used during this process, and many people don't realize this is a routine practice in the poultry industry." (http://www.enn.com/news/enn-stories/2000/11/11232000/turkeytime_40392.asp) [02.11.24:07]

"According to standards set by the Food Safety and Inspection Service, it is acceptable for up to half (49.9 percent) of the ground turkey purchased by consumers to be contaminated with salmonella." (USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service, “HACCP Implementation: First-Year Salmonella Test Results, January 26, 1998, to January 25, 1999,” p. 2, http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsveg122.html) [02.11.24:08]

ÓAmerican turkeys contaminated with Campylobacter (according to major USDA tests in 1996-97):  90%Ó   (žHow Hazardous is Your Turkey?Ó  Center for Science in the Public Interest news release, Nov. 19, 1998) [02.08.03.10]

ÓCampylobacter kills an estimated 100 Americans and sickens almost two million others each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, while Salmonella causes an estimated 1.3 million illnesses, 15,000 hospitalizations, and 500 deaths annually. Those illnesses are characterized by diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramping, nausea, or headache. Salmonella and Campylobacter are also linked to other serious chronic illnesses, like reactive arthritis and Guillian Barre syndrome,respectively.Ó  (http://www.cspinet.org/new/foodsafety02_14_02.html) [02.11.24.09]

ÓTurkey is completely devoid of fiber and carbohydrates and loaded with even more fat and cholesterol than many cuts of beef (for instance, a turkey’s leg contains about 72 milligrams of cholesterol and is 47 percent fat)Ó  ("Where’s the Fat?," U.S. News & World Report, 4 Jun. 1990, http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsveg122.html) [02.11.24.10]

"Turkeys must stand mired in layers of waste while urine and ammonia fumes burn their eyes and lungs. They are fed antibiotics and are purposely bred to gain an enormous amount of weight in a short period of time.Ó   (Rick Weiss, "Techno Turkeys," The Washington Post, 12 Nov. 1997, p. H1, http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsveg122.html ) [02.11.24.11]

"A survey of 451 federal inspectors, conducted by Public Citizen, the Government Accountability Project, and the American Federation of Government Employees, showed that safety inspectors were concerned that poultry products are also contaminated with animal feces, vomit, and metal shards because of lax standards set by the USDA.Ó   (Julie Vorman, "Feces, Vomit on Raw Meat a Growing Risk, Say Consumer Groups," Health News, 6 Sep. 2000, http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsveg122.html ) [02.11.24.12]

"In an average lifetime, just one American devours 65 turkeys.Ó   ("Overview of U.S. Meat and Poultry Production and Consumption," American Meat Institute, Jun. 2001, http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsveg122.html ) [02.11.24.13]

"The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that salmonella is present in 35 percent of turkeys.Ó   (Joby Warrick, “An Outbreak Waiting to Happen: Beef-Inspection Failures Let in a Deadly Microbe,” The Washington Post, 9 Apr. 2001, p. A01., http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsveg122.html ) [02.11.24.14]



ANIMAL FACTORIES/PRODUCTION:

"It is a myth that farming in the U.S. is controlled by large corporations which care about profits and not about animal welfare." "Animal Agriculture: Myths and Facts, Animal Industry Foundation, Arlington VA, 1989, pg 9. [02.06.27:16]

"U.S. poultry production controlled by 8 largest chicken processors in 1978: 25.3%." Feedstuffs, July 6, 1998. [02.06.27:17]

"In 1998: 61.5%." Feedstuffs, July 6, 1998. [02.06.27:18]

"Net worth of chicken producer Donald Tyson: $1.2 billion." Feedstuffs, Oct 6, 1997, pg 2. [02.06.27:19]

"Average hourly wage of Tyson poultry processing plant worker: $5.27", Schrimper, R, "U.S. poultry processing employment and hourly earnings," Joumal of Applied Poultry Research 1997;6:81-89. [02.06.27:20]

"U.S. turkey market controlled by the 6 largest processors: 50%." Figures published by the National Turkey Federation, cited in Wolfson, David, Beyond The Law: Agribusiness and the systemic abuse of animals raised for food or food production, Farm Sanctuary, 1999. [02.06.27:21]

"U.S. beef market controlled by the 4 largest beef-packers: 81%." Figures from Drover's Journal, July 1997, cited in Wolfson, David, Beyond The Law: Agribusiness and the systemic abuse of animals raised for food or food production, Farm Sanctuary, 1999. [02.06.27:22]

"U.S. hog slaughter controlled by 4 corporations: 50%." Wolfson, David, Beyond The Law: Agribusiness and the systemic abuse of animals raised for food or food production, Farm Sanctuary, 1999. [02.06.27:23]